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Revelation 19

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Posted on CCPC's website 2022

The study Index page.

     Again. This study is verse by verse, IMAGE by Image, IDEA by Idea, and concept by concept. Which means it is a Marathon.
     We are using sources that John the Apostle and those mentioned as the recipients of the letter, the Seven Churches and other First Century Christians, the majority of which were Jews, would / should / could have been familiar with. We will also reference newer translations and versions of the book, beginning with the 1560 Geneva Bible (the bulk source for the 1611 KJV, which we also use) all the way up to much more current publications, and examinations of the text from various scholars, as well as beginning the analysis of the text from the Greek.
     It should be said here, as we are beginning with the Greek, we are going in remembering that John was writing in an 'apocalyptic' style. It seems many translations have forgotten that and 'moderated' the language.
“Once you get into this great stream of history, you can't get out.”
- Richard M. Nixon

     There's a time lapse, but it is unknown as to how long, and we're back to first person narration.
     “Meta tauta” (after that) I heard 'voices loud like' a “ochlou pollou” (throng 'of people' great) in heaven, “legonton” saying: “Hallelouia!” (praise the Lord!) “soteria” (rescue / salvation) and the glory and power to the “Theou hemon” (God of us)!

     For “alethinai” (made of truth) and “dikaiai” (equitable / holy / righteous) are the decisions of Him, for He has judged the “pornen ten megalen” (prostitute / community of idolatry the great / large), who “ephtheiren” (corrupted / spoiled / ruined) with the “porneia” (whoredom / idolatry) of her, “exedikesen” ('He' has vindicated) the blood of the slaves of Him, out of her “cheiros” (hand).

3 and 4
     And a second time they said “Hallelouia!” the smoke of her goes up to the “aionas ton aionon” (ages upon ages / in perpetuity).
     This is one of the descriptions of God in Revelation 1, and 4 : 9 and 10, and so on.
     Then the elders and the beasts from earlier in the book worshiped saying “Amen, Hallelouia”.

     And a voice from the throne “exelthen” (comes out) saying: “Aineite” (praise) to the God of us, all the “douloi” (servants) of Him, and all those who “phoboumenoi” (revere / are in awe of / 'fear') of Him, small and great.

     John hears, stuff... The thunder here is just thunder, like the sound of mighty waters, and a large crowd, saying....
     “ebasileusen” (rules, reigns) the God of Us, the “Pantokrator” (Almighty / Ruler of the Universe).

     “chairomen kai agalliomen” (we are full of joy and exult (celebrate)), and will give glory to Him, because has come the “gamos” (wedding ceremony) of the “Arniou” (Lamb), and the bride has prepared herself.
     “gamos” is exactly the same word we see John use to describe the wedding in Cana, and in Christ's parable in Matthew 22 of the wedding feast.

     And it was given to her, the bride, to be arrayed in fine linen, “lampron katharon” (radiant clean). For the fine linen the “dikaiomata” (righteous acts) of the saints are.

     And he says to me....
     This 'he' is not identified until later.
     ... write, “Makarioi” (to be envied / blessed) are those who have been “keklemenoi” (summoned / invited) to the “deipnon tou gamou” (supper of the marriage) of the Lamb. And he says to me, “Houtoi hoi logoi alethinoi tou Theou eisin” (this expression / topic / word is genuine / real of GOD is/are).
     Once again John is commanded to write, this time because what he is seeing and hearing it the Truth of God.

     Then John does something he shouldn't, which proves he was human.
     “epesa emprosthen podon autou” (fell in front of feet his) to “proskynesai” (to prostrate himself in homage /worship). And he says: “Hora me” (see that you do not). “Syndoulos sou eimi” (a 'co-slave' / similar servant with you I am) and the brothers of you, “echonton” (possessing / holding) the “martyrian” (witness / evidence / testimony) of “Iesou”. The “Theo proskyneson”! For the “testimony/etc” of Jesus is the “pneuma tes propheteias” (breath / spirit of 'communicating a revealed truth')
     This was one of the sections mentioned in our essay on angels, that they ARE NOT to be worshiped! It also says something about the Gospel and the way it is to be spread.

     John sees heaven opened up and “idou” (Behold / 'Look - See') a “hippos leukos” (horse white) and the One sitting on it was called “Pistos kai Alethinos” (Trustworthy / Faithful and Made of Truth) and in “dikaiosyne” (righteous equity) he “krinei” (distinguishes / judges) and “polemei” (fights / battles / makes war).

     And His eyes are like a flame of “pyros” (the sun / lightning / fire), and upon His head are “diademata polla” (diadem (jeweled crown signifying sovereignty) many), having “onoma gegrammenon” (a name written) which “oudeis oiden” (no one knows / remembers / appreciates), if not Himself,

     having been clothed in “himation” (a tunic, outer garment) “bebammenon” (dipped (as to dye cloth)) “haimati” (in blood). And is called the name of Him “Ho Logos Tou Theou” (The Word of God).
     Again we come back to the introduction to John's gospel, and the beginning of 1 John.

     And the armies of heaven “ekolouthei” (accompanied) Him on white horses having been clothed in clean white linen.
     We do not know exactly who the 'soldiers' in this army are at this point. They may be the saints, as the text points out that they have been clothed in white linen which implies that they've had a change of wardrobe recently. Or as the phrase is very general in ... (ignore pun, keep moving)... in context, it could be made up of angels, or perhaps whoever, or whatever, was standing around in heaven with nothing else to do and is all of the above (ignore pun....).

     We're back to the vision in chapter one, verse sixteen to be exact.
     ..... “oxeia, hina en aute pataxe tau ethne” (sharp / swift, that He may strike / smite to death the 'foreign' nations); and He will “poimanei” (herd / tend / govern / 'shepherd') them with a rod of iron. And He “patei” (tramples) the wine press of the “thymou” (fury / passionate wrath) of “Theou tou Pantokratoros” (God the Ruler of All).

     And He has written upon His “himation” (tunic / outer robe) and “meron” (upper leg / thigh...

Name tag tangent.
     Where a name is 'written' on somebody is somewhat important, and how it is done is also worth looking at.
     There is significance in the placement, such as on their forehead, in both the status of the person, or thing when we're talking about the beast, so marked. That location is for ease of identification of whoever they come in contact with. Slaves weren't usually branded on the forehead, but sometimes convicted criminals were. The more technical name for the process is “scarification” and, unless some extensive plastic surgery is done, it is permanent. And, believe it or not, human branding has come back into fashion as yet another type of 'body modification', and people pay for the privilege of having such pain inflicted on them.
     In Roman times, captured runaway slaves and army deserters (those who weren't killed outright) were branded with FGV (fugitive) on their forehead, and or hand, or even on their calf of their leg. Sometimes all three just to make the point. And then sent back into slavery. Once so marked, if they got into trouble again, well, that was the end of it.
     Other cultures branded everything from their own slaves and cattle to trade goods and even trees with hot irons to denote ownership or other important designation. However, other than finding the branding irons, most of the articles branded are perishable, especially given the scale of time we're talking about, and exactly how some of them were used isn't clear.
     The other type of mark, the tattoo, is somewhat less destructive to the skin, but is also permanent to some degree. Tattooing, inserting ink into the skin with some sort of needle, has also been done since ancient times. Some Egyptian mummies who had been buried somewhere around 3000 BC had decorative tattoos on them that are still visible. So unless medically removed, a tattoo is pretty much permanent.
     Other marks, such as henna (a dye made from from the henna plant), or even a magic marker, may last over a month for henna with a bit of care and if done properly. Henna has been used to draw or paint designs on people, and various other canvases for even longer than tattooing, reaching so far back into prehistory throughout Africa and Asia there is no known 'first use'.
     As for the name on His 'overcoat', it could be anywhere, even across the chest or on the back, or down along the thigh where a sword would usually hang. In this case, the name, and that it is highly visible, is what is important. There is no mistake as to Who is on the horse.
End tangent
     ... a name written: King of Kings and Lord of Lords.
     The Greek could also be translated as: Ruler of Rulers (the equivalent term would be Emperor) and Master of Masters.

     This one takes some explaining. The angel John sees now isn't standing IN the star we call 'the Sun', he is standing in the sunlight, perhaps with some dark glasses and a drink made inside a coconut shell with a surfboard nearby, when he does what Saint Francis is said to have done, talking to the birds of the air. “My sweet little sisters, birds of the sky, you are bound to heaven, to God, your Creator. In every beat of your wings and every note of your songs, praise him.”
     Oh, we need to look at the verse, OK... here we go:

     There is another possible time gap in the action, although it would appear to be brief. John sees another angel standing in the “helios” (sun or sunlight) and he “ekraxen” (shrieks /shouts) in a “phone megale” (voice great / loud) “legon” (saying) to “pasin” (all/ the whole / every) “orneois” (general word for 'birds') “petomenois en mesouranemati” (flying in the middle-heaven (the sky)), Come “synachthete” ('convene together for a good time') to the “deipnon” (evening meal / supper) of the Great God.

     OK, so Francis spoke the birds that were sitting on the ground and didn't fly away when he approached while the angel speaks to birds in the air. Oh, well.

     The menu for the bird party is one of the more gruesome parts of The Apocalypse.
     The term is the same for everybody and everything listed, “sarkas” meaning (body / flesh). The active verb is the same for them all as well, “phagete” (to eat). The birds will eat the flesh of... everybody on the other side. The list in the text is extensive and ranges from kings down through warriors to slaves.
     Isaiah 34 talks about how the scavenging birds will flourish. Christ talks about the “aetoi” (vultures) in Matthew 24: 26 (which the KJV calls 'eagles'). These birds were unclean to Jews, as seen in Leviticus 11 and Deuteronomy 14.
     Even Homer, in about 800 BC in the Iliad talks about vultures following the Greek army and their feasting on the bodies of dead soldiers, and they especially seemed to like dead donkeys. One of the more common vultures in the area is called the Griffon Vulture, of which an adult can weigh over 20 pounds and have a 9 foot wingspan.
     We don't think these carrion fowl are Saint Francis' “sweet little sisters”. See link below to his short sermon to the birds.

     John sees something else, the beast.....
     Now he doesn't say WHICH beast, only that he saw 'the beast' (not the dragon), which implies the first one.
     ... and the kings of the earth and their armies come together to make war on the One on the horse.....
     That's how it is stated. There's a lot of horses in the mix, some on both sides according to the text, the only difference here is how it is stated, “tou” (the (with the One being unstated but implied)) sitting on the horse, and His army.

     And the best was captured, and with him the “pseudoprophetes” (impostor religious / false prophet), the one who did the signs before him by which “eplanesen”, by which the beast deceived those that had the mark of the beast, and worshiped it, and the image of it....
     OK, take a break, catch your breath for a second. The key here is that the beast and his showman were captured by the One on the horse and His army. The rest of that passage has nothing to do with the primary action here. Break's over, back to 20.
     .... “zontes” (to be alive / living)....
     They were captured alive, and remained so. That means they were some manner of flesh and blood, breathing air, and all the rest of it. They were alive in this world.
     .... “eblethesan” (were thrown / dropped) the “dyo” (two) into the “limnen tou pyros” (lake of fire) burning with sulfur.

     And the “loipoi apektanthesan” (remainder were killed outright) with the sword of the One on the horse.
     Then they fed the birds.

End 19

Selected Sources for this chapter:
Ancient Egyptian tattoos:
Full URL:

More on Francis of Assisi:

a bit dramatic, but you've got to love the title of this PDF (the 'all caps' is their idea):

Sources used throughout entire study:
Bible Hub Interlinear pages:

the Geneva Bible downloadable

the 1611 KJV

The study Index page.

NOTE: The Bible Study Lesson presented above is posted as a reference document to begin a conversation of the topic. And that's it. Please accept it at such.

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